Since anti-government demonstrations began in Syria in March 2011, Human Rights Watch has interviewed more than 200 people who experienced or witnessed torture, including defectors from the security and intelligence agencies who participated in abuses.
This map shows the locations of detention centers that were identified by multiple witnesses. Using satellite imagery, Human Rights Watch asked the victims and defectors to point out the buildings where torture took place.
Former detainees and defectors corroborated the findings by describing the facilities in detail and drawing layouts of the floors where they were detained and interrogated.
Pseudonyms have been used to protect the identity of the sources, some of whom remain in Syria.